Fiber Optics, which is and how it works

Good computer friends Today I wanted to tell you a little about a revolutionary means, at least for me, and that every time is being used more. I'm going to tell you a little about what this medium is about, how it is composed, some tips and points of view.
When I said revolutionary, I was referring more than anything, to this is a type of medium that has changed the concepts of transmission of information as did the Wi-fi years ago. Today we can say that a LAN can be within 20 KM. squares ... yes, this is like to start and not to mention when we talk about SAN, MAN ... .LAN between countries ?, security offered, bandwidth thanks to the fact that it transmits Full duplex (one cable to transmit and another to receive, for that come in pairs, thus avoiding also collisions taking advantage of the bandwidth), etc.fiber optic patch panel in china

The fiber is interesting because it takes a very old concept that is the manipulation of light , it is nothing more than that, controlled manipulation of light. If we go back to history, the Egyptians themselves controlled the light by means of mirrors to illuminate inside the incredible pyramids ... .. Precursors of the optical fiber?
Today the manipulation of the light is controlled within a cable, with special terminations and special plates that make the transmission possible and that I will detail throughout this humble note.
How fiber optic is composed
1- Dielectric central element : this central element that is not available in all types of optical fiber, is a filament that does not conduct electricity (dielectric), which helps the consistency of the cable among other things.
2 - Moisture drainage thread : its purpose is that moisture comes out through it, leaving the rest of the filaments free of moisture.
3- Fibers : this is the most important part of the cable, since it is the medium through which the information is transmitted. It can be silicon (glass) or highly processed plastic. Here the physical phenomena of reflection and refraction occur. The purity of this material is what makes the difference to know if it is good to transmit or not. A simple impurity can divert the beam of light, causing it to be lost or not reach its destination. As regards the manufacturing process, it is very interesting and there are many videos and material in the network, but basically the threads (microns in width) are obtained by exposing glass tubes to extreme heat and by means of the dripping that occurs when melting. They get each one of them.
4- Loose Buffers : it is a small tube that covers the fiber and sometimes contains a gel that serves for the same purpose also making a dark layer so that light rays do not spread out of the fiber.
5- Mylar tape : it is a thin polyester layer that makes a lot of years ago it was used to transmit programs to PC, but in this case it only fulfills the role of an isolator.
6- Flame tape : is a cover that serves to protect the cable from heat and flame.
7- Synthetic Kevlar yarns: these threads help a lot in the consistency and protection of the cable, taking into account that 
the Kevlar is a very good fire retardant, in addition to supporting the stretching of its threads.
8- Sewing thread : they are threads that help the consistency of the cable.
9-Sheath: the upper layer of the cable that provides insulation and consistency to the set that has inside.
Now that we know how it is composed, let's see how it works. I'm not going to detail mathematically the operation because it's not the idea, I'm just going to talk about the two phenomena of optics that allow transmission and are the strawberries of this wonderful cake. Also in the network there is plenty of information to expand your knowledge. 
The two principles by which fiber works are Reflection and Refraction . They are the guilty of carrying this forward.
Refraction : it is the change of direction that the waves carry when they pass from one medium to another. Simply and for better 
understanding, this is experienced when we put a spoon in a glass of water and it seems to move 
within it.
Reflection : it is also the change of direction of the wave, but towards the origin. This would be what happens when we 
look in the mirror ... .. without reflection, we could not comb or shave in front of the mirror ... ..?
Now that we know what are the physical principles that occur within the optical fiber, we go to a figure that details these phenomena in action:
We already know how it works, so let's talk a little about what types of fiber there are and what each one serves. To do this we are going to group them in two ways. One is single-mode fiber and the other is multimode and this grouping is due to the way they transmit light inside the fiber.
Single mode: only one beam of light is transferred through the interior of the fiber. They have a transmission range of 300 km. in 
ideal conditions, the light source being a laser.
Multimode : several hases of light can be transmitted inside the fiber. Generally their source of light are IODOS of 
low intensity, having short distances of propagation (2 or 3 Km), but they are cheaper and easier to install.
We get to the point where we know what fiber is like, what materials make them and what types there are. It is the moment to know how to connect them between the devices and how are the network boards whose mission is to "transform" the light into binary code (photosensors) so that the device can interpret.
FC used in data transmission and telecommunications. 
 is used for fiber optic patch panel networks. 
LC and MT -Array that are used in high data density transmissions, mostly used in servers or storage clusters. 
SC and SC Duplex are used for data transmission. 
ST or BFOC is used in building networks and security systems.
Once we have them connected, the plates emit light through different devices:
Laser : the most powerful and used in single mode 
LED cable : they are cheap, they do not have much power and they are used in multimode cables.
The network boards , in addition to giving us the connection interface, are in charge of "converting" the light impulses into binaries for the understanding of the PC. Basically they take the impulses in this way: Light impulse = 1, darkness = 0. This is how the binary forms. Also for more details, there is always the internet to deepen.fiber optics: